When user is restricted read access to the field using ACL they will not see the data in the list for the field. However, the users will still be able to add filter on this field and get the filtered results.
Any supported version
This happens when the user is being restricted the access with the Condition/Script in the ACL.
In order to make sure that the user does not have the access to the field when filtering the results, make sure that the user is restricted the access based on the 'Requires Role' section of the ACL and not Condition/Script. Once this is done, the user will not be able to see the fields completely from the list view and also in the filter.