Workflows fail to run on instances that do not use English as the system language.
Go to the system dictionary and change field Type of wf_activity_definition.name to String.
Table : "wf_activity_definition"
Field : "name"
Go to Scripts - Background and run "GlideCacheManager.invalidate();" This will flush the db cache so the above changes take effect.
Now this field will not translate and the workflow engine will work correctly.